Bloodhound – General Description
The Bloodhound (also known as the St. Hubert hound and Sleuth Hound) is a large breed of dog that was bred originally to hunt deer and wild boar, later specifically to track human beings by scent. It is famed for its ability to follow scents hours or even days old over great distances. Its extraordinarily keen nose is combined with a strong and tenacious tracking instinct, producing the ideal Scenthound, and it is used by police and law enforcement the world over to track escaped prisoners, missing persons, and even missing pets.
Classification and Standards
- FCI Group 6, Section 1, #084
- AKC Hound
- ANKC Group 4 (Hounds)
- CKC Group 2 – Hounds
- KC (UK) Hound
- NZKC Hounds
- UKC Scenthounds
Derivation of Name
The word ‘bloodhound’ is recorded from c1350. Most recent accounts say that its etymological meaning is ‘hound of pure or noble blood’. This derives from an original suggestion of Le Couteulx de Canteleu in the nineteenth century, which has been enthusiastically and uncritically espoused by later writers, perhaps because it absolved this undoubtedly good-natured dog from suggestions of bloodthirstiness. Neither Le Couteulx nor anyone since has offered any historical evidence to support this view. The suggestion sometimes seen that the word derives from ‘blooded hound’ is without basis, as the expression does not appear in early English, and ‘blooded’ in this meaning is not found before the nineteenth century. Before then ‘bloodhound’ had been taken to mean, ‘hound for blood’, or ‘blood-seeking hound’. This was the explanation put forward by John Caius, who was one of the most learned men of his time, and had an interest in etymology, in the sixteenth century. It is supported by considerable historical linguistic evidence, which can be gleaned from such sources as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED): the fact that first uses of the word ‘blood’ to refer to good breeding in an animal post date the first use of ‘Bloodhound’; that other comparable uses, as in ‘blood-horse’ and ‘blood-stock’ appear many centuries later; and that derogatory uses of the word ‘Bloodhound’, which any suggestion of noble breeding would sadly weaken, appear from as early as c1400. Other early sources tell us that hounds were supposed to have an interest in blood, and that the Bloodhound was used to follow the trail of a wounded animal. In the absence of anything in early usage, or any historical evidence whatsoever, to support the modern explanation, the older must be regarded as correct.
Character & Temperament
This breed is a gentle dog which is nonetheless tireless in following a scent. Because of its strong tracking instinct, it can be willful and somewhat difficult to obedience train. Bloodhounds have an affectionate, gentle, and even-tempered nature, so they make excellent family pets. However, like any large breed, they require supervision when around small children.
Chien de St. Hubert
The St Hubert was, according to legend, first bred ca. 1000 AD by monks at the Saint-Hubert Monastery in Belgium; its origins are likely in France, home of many of modern hounds.
From ca. 1200, the monks of the Abbey of St Hubert annually sent several pairs of black hounds as a gift to the King of France. They were not always highly thought of in the royal pack. Charles IX 1550-74, preferred the larger Chien-gris, and wrote that the St Huberts were suitable for people with gout to follow, but not for those who wished to shorten the life of the hunted animal. He described them as pack-hounds of medium stature, long in the body, not well sprung in the rib, and of no great strength. Writing in 1561 Jaques du Fouilloux describes them as strong of body, but with low, short legs. He says they have become mixed in breeding, so that they are now of all colors and widely distributed. Both writers thought them only useful as leash hounds.
They appear to have been more highly thought of during the reign of Henry IV (1553–1610), who presented a pack to James I of England. By the end of the reign of Louis XIV (1715), they were already rare. In 1788, D’Yauville, who was master of the Royal hounds, says those sent by the St Hubert monks, once much prized, had degenerated, and scarcely one of the annual gift of six or eight was kept.
Upon the French Revolution of 1789, the gifts ceased, and hunting in France went into a decline until the end of the Napoleonic wars. When it recovered during the 19th Century, huntsmen, with many breeds to choose from, seem to have had little interest in the St Hubert. An exception was Baron Le Couteulx de Canteleu, who tried to find them. He reported that there were hardly any in France, and those in the Ardennes were so cross-bred that they had lost the characteristics of the breed.
Writers on the bloodhound in the last two centuries generally agreed that the original St Hubert strain died out in the nineteenth century, and that the European St Hubert owes its present existence to the development of the Bloodhound.
References to bloodhounds first appear in English writing in the mid 14th century, in contexts that suggest the breed was well established by then. It is often claimed that its ancestors were brought over from Normandy by William the Conqueror, but there is no actual evidence for this. That the Normans brought hounds from Europe during the post-Conquest period is virtually certain, but whether they included the Bloodhound itself, rather than merely its ancestors, is a matter of dispute that probably cannot be resolved on the basis of surviving evidence.
In Medieval hunting the typical use of the Bloodhound was as a ‘limer’, or ‘lyam-hound’, that is a dog handled on a leash or ‘lyam’, to find the hart or boar before it was hunted by the pack hounds (raches). It was prized for its ability to hunt the cold scent of an individual animal, and, though it did not usually take part in the kill, it was given a special reward from the carcase.
It also seems that from the earliest times the Bloodhound was used to track people. There are stories written in Medieval Scotland of Robert the Bruce (in 1307), and William Wallace (1270–1305) being followed by ‘sleuth hounds’. Whether true or not, these stories show that the sleuth hound was already known as a man-trailer, and it later becomes clear that the sleuth hound and the Bloodhound were the same animal.
English Bloodhound 1563
In the 16th century, John Caius, in unquestionably the most important single source in the history of the Bloodhound, describes its hanging ears and lips, its use in game parks to follow the scent of blood, which gives it its name, its ability to track thieves and poachers by their foot scent, how it casts if it has lost the scent when thieves cross water, and its use on the Scottish borders to track cross-border raiders, known as Border Reivers. This links it to the sleuth hound, and from Caius also comes the information that the English Bloodhound and the sleuth hound were essentially the same, though the Bloodhound was slightly bigger, with more variation in coat color.
The picture on the right was published in Zurich in 1563, in Conrad Gesner’s Thierbuch (a compendium of animals) with the captions: ‘Englischen Blüthund’ and ‘Canis Sagax Sanguinarius apud Anglos’ (English scent hound with associations of blood). It was drawn by, or under the supervision of, John Caius, and sent to Gesner with other drawings to illustrate his descriptions of British dogs for European readers. It is thus the earliest known picture published specifically to demonstrate the appearance of the Bloodhound. We are told it was done from life, and detail such as the soft hang of the ear indicates it was carefully observed. Fully accurate or not, it suggests changes between the Bloodhound of then and today. The collar and long coiled rope reflect the Bloodhound’s typical functions as a limer or leashed man-trailer in that period.
The earliest known report of a trial of the Bloodhound’s trailing abilities comes from the scientist Robert Boyle, who described how a Bloodhound tracked a man seven miles along a route frequented by people, and found him in an upstairs room of a house.
With the rise of fox-hunting, the decline of deer-hunting, and the extinction of the wild boar, as well as a more settled state of society, the use of the Bloodhound diminished. It was kept by the aristocratic owners of a few deer-parks and by a few enthusiasts, with some variation in type, until its popularity began to increase again with the rise of dog-showing in the 19th Century. Numbers, however, have remained low in Britain. Very few survived the Second World War, but the gene-pool has gradually been replenished with imports from America. Nevertheless, because of UK quarantine restrictions, importing was expensive and difficult, throughout the 20th century, and in the post-war period exports to the USA, and to Europe where the population had also been affected by the war, considerably exceeded imports.
During the later 19th century numbers of Bloodhounds were imported from Britain by French enthusiasts, who regretted the extinction of the ancient St Hubert. They wished to re-establish it, using the Bloodhound, which, despite its developments in Britain, they regarded as the St Hubert preserved unchanged. Many of the finest specimens were bought and exhibited and bred in France as Chiens de St Hubert, especially by Le Couteulx de Canteleu, who himself bred over 300. Whatever few original St Huberts remained either died out or were absorbed into the new population. As a result, the Bloodhound became known on parts of the Continent as the Chien de Saint Hubert, and is recognised under that name by the Federation Cynologique Internationale. Its country of origin is given by the FCI as Belgium, while in the UK it has been regarded as a native British breed, with the modern European St Huberts accepted as Bloodhounds.
In Le Couteulx’ book of 1890 we read that ‘Le Chien de St Hubert actuel’ is very big, from 0m,69 to 0m,80 (27½-31½in) high. This does not accord with the 16th century descriptions of the St Hubert given above, nor with the FCI standard, but the idea that the St Hubert is much bigger (up to 0.915m, 36 in) than the Bloodhound persisted well into the 20th century, among some St Hubert enthusiasts.
When the first Bloodhounds were exported to the USA is not known. Bloodhounds were used to track runaway slaves before the American Civil War, but it has been questioned whether the dogs used were genuine Bloodhounds. However, in the later part of the 19th century, and in the next, more pure Bloodhounds were introduced from Britain, and bred in America, especially after 1888, when the English breeder, Edwin Brough, brought three of his hounds to exhibit at the Westminster KC show in New York City. He went into partnership with Mr J L Winchell, who with other Americans, imported more stock from Britain. Bloodhounds in America have been more widely used in tracking lost people and criminals – often with brilliant success – than in Britain, and the history of the Bloodhound in America is full of the man-trailing exploits of outstanding Bloodhounds and their expert handlers, the most famous hound being Nick Carter. Law enforcement agencies have been much involved in the use of Bloodhounds, and there is a National Police Bloodhound Association, originating in 1962.
In Britain there have been instances from time to time of the successful use of the Bloodhound to track criminals or missing people. However man-trailing is enjoyed as a sport by British Bloodhound owners, through national working trials, and this enthusiasm has spread to Europe. In addition, while the pure Bloodhound is used to hunt singly, bloodhound packs use bloodhounds crossed with foxhounds to hunt the human scent.
Meanwhile, the Bloodhound has become widely distributed internationally, though numbers are small in most countries, with more in the USA than anywhere else. Following the spread of the Bloodhound from Britain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, imports and exports and, increasingly, artificial insemination, are maintaining the world population as a common breeding stock, without a great deal of divergence in type in different countries.
Bloodhounds are now colored red, black and tan or liver and tan; however, until Elizabethan times they also occurred in other solid colors, including white, and all other hound colors. It is possible that the Talbot, now extinct, was a white Bloodhound, but this is uncertain.
During the late 19th century, Bloodhounds were frequent subjects for artists such as Edwin Landseer and Briton Riviere; the dogs depicted are close in appearance to modern Bloodhounds, indicating that the essential character of the Bloodhound predates modern dog breeding. However, the dogs depicted by Landseer show less wrinkle and haw than modern dogs.
Grafton was the bloodhound in Landseer’s famous painting Dignity and Impudence (1839). Both dogs in the picture belonged to Jacob Bell.
Mr T A Jennings’ Ch Druid, known as ‘Old Druid’ was the first bloodhound champion. Born in 1857 he was later bought by Emperor Napoleon III for his son, Prince Eugene Louis Jean Joseph, and taken to France. Photographs of him, of another famous hound, Cowen’s Druid, and a bitch named Countess, appear in a rare book from 1865 in the British Library, and may be the oldest photographs of bloodhounds to have survived.
A bloodhound named Nick Carter is frequently cited as the archetype of the trailing bloodhound and the extensive publicity this dog received may be the source of much bloodhound-related folklore. Born in 1900, Nick Carter was owned and handled by Captain G.V. Mullikin of Lexington, Kentucky; he is credited with more than 650 finds, including one that required him to follow a trail 300 hours old, that is 12 days.
Ch. Heathers Knock on Wood, known as Knotty, was one of the most awarded bloodhounds of all time.He received more Best-in-Shows than any other bloodhound, and is the first liver-and-tan bloodhound ever to win a Best-in-Show. Knotty was awarded Best-in-Show at the Eukanuba Tournament in 2005 and won the Hound Group in the Westminster Kennel Club Show the same year. Knotty’s offspring have also been showdogs, and as a result many of his puppies receiving the title of “Champion” by the AKC, Knotty was inducted into the AKC’s Stud Dog Hall of Fame. He died in the Spring of 2008, from a rattlesnake bite, which he suffered while trying to protect his owner from the snake.
On the popular 1960s sitcom Beverly Hillbillies, veteran canine actor Stretch portrayed Jed’s bloodhound Duke.
The US Army 615th Military Police Company, mascot is a bloodhound named for the Company’s pet and mascot during Vietnam named Andy.
Size & Appearance
Bloodhounds weigh from 33 to 50 kg (80 to 110 lb), although some individuals can weigh as much as 72 kg (160 lb). They stand 58 to 69 cm (23 to 27 inches) high at the withers. According to the AKC standard of the breed, larger dogs are to be preferred by conformation judges. The acceptable colors for Bloodhounds are black and tan, liver and tan, or red. Bloodhounds possess an unusually large skeletal structure with most of their weight concentrated in their bones, which are very thick for their length. The coat is typical for a Scenthound: hard and composed of fur alone, with no admixture of hair.
Up to at least the seventeenth century bloodhounds were of all colors, but in modern times the color range has become more restricted. The colors are usually listed as black and tan, liver and tan and red. White is not uncommon on the chest, and sometimes appears on the feet. Genetically, the main types are determined by the action of two genes, found in many species. One produces an alternation between black and brown (liver). If a hound inherits the black allele (variant) from either parent, it has a black nose, eye rims and paw-pads, and if it has a saddle, it is black. The other allele suppresses black pigment and is recessive, so it must be inherited from both parents. It produces liver noses, eye rims, paw-pads, and saddles.
The second gene determines coat pattern. It can produce animals with no saddle (essentially all-tan, but called ‘red’ in bloodhounds); ones with saddle-marking; or ones largely covered with darker (black or liver) pigment, except for tan lips, eyebrows, forechest and lower legs. These last are sometimes referred to as ‘blanket’ or ‘full-coat’ types. In a pioneering study in 1969 Dennis Piper suggested 5 alleles in the pattern-marking gene, producing variants from the red or saddle-less hound through three different types of progressively greater saddle marking to the ‘blanket’ type. However, more modern study attributes the variation to 3 different alleles of the Agouti gene. Ay produces the non saddle-marked “red” hound, As produces saddle-marking, and at produces the blanket or full-coat hound. Of these Ay is dominant, and at is recessive to the others. The interaction of these variants of the two genes produces the six basic types shown below.
Descriptions of the desirable physical qualities of a hunting hound go back to Medieval books on hunting. All dogs used in the hunting field were ‘gentle’, that is of good breeding (not necessarily pure breeding), and parents were carefully chosen to maintain and improve conformation. In 1896, making some use of wording found in earlier descriptions, Edwin Brough and Dr J Sidney Turner published Points and Characteristics of the Bloodhound or Sleuth-Hound. This was adopted by the newly-formed Association of Bloodhound Breeders, and ultimately became, with very little change, the ‘official’ breed standard of the KC and the AKC. Meanwhile, the Belgian or Dutch Comte Henri de Bylandt, or H A graaf van Bylandt, published Races des Chiens in 1897, a huge and very important illustrated compilation of breed descriptions, or standards. In this French edition the Bloodhound appears as the Chien de St Hubert, although the pictures illustrating the standard are all of British Bloodhounds, many of them those of Edwin Brough. The book was revised and reprinted in four languages in 1904, and in this edition the English text of the standard is that of the Association of Bloodhound Breeders, while the French text is closely based on it. However, the present FCI standard uses a quite different layout and wording. The AKC standard has hardly been altered from the original of 1896, the principal change being that the colours, ‘black and tan’, ‘red and tan’, and ‘tawny’, have been renamed as ‘black and tan’, ‘liver and tan’, and ‘red’, but the British KC  has made considerable changes. Some of these were simply matters of presentation and did not affect content. However, responding to the view that the requirements of some breed standards were potentially detrimental to the health or well-being of the animal, changes have been made affecting the required eye-shape and the loose skin, the most recent revision being 2008-9.
Scenting & Tracking
The Bloodhound’s physical characteristics account for its ability to follow a scent trail left several days in the past. Under optimal conditions, a Bloodhound can detect as few as one or two cells. The Bloodhound’s nasal chambers (where scents are identified) are larger than those of most other breeds. The large, long pendent ears serve to prevent wind from scattering nearby skin cells while the dog’s nose is on the ground; the folds of wrinkled flesh under the lips and neck—called the shawl—serve to catch stray scent particles in the air or on a nearby branch as the Bloodhound is scenting, reinforcing the scent in the dog’s memory and nose.
The number of olfactory receptor cells are 4 billion in a bloodhound, compared to just 5 million in a human and 100 million in a rabbit
The surface area of bloodhound olfactory epithelium is 59 sq.in. compared to human’s 1.55 sq.in. (10 sq.cm.)
A common misconception is that Bloodhounds are employed in packs; while this is sometimes the case in Britain, in North America, Bloodhounds are used as solitary trackers. When they are on a trail, they are usually silent and do not give voice as other scenthounds. The original use of the Bloodhound as a leash-hound, to find but not disturb animals, would require silent trailing.
Nevertheless, the Bloodhound bay is among the most impressive of hound voices. When hunting in a pack they are expected to be in full cry. They are more likely to ‘give tongue,’ ‘throw their tongue,’ or ‘speak’ when hunting in a pack than when hunting singly, and more when hunting free than when on the leash. The quality of ‘speaking to the line’, that is giving tongue when on the correct scent while remaining silent when off it, is valued in British Bloodhound circles, on aesthetic grounds and because it makes it very easy to ‘read’ the hound’s tracking behaviour. As a result special trophies for speaking to the correct line are on offer at British working trials (where hounds hunt singly), although rarely awarded.
The Medieval bloodhound was not primarily a pack hound, but a leash hound, though there may have been packs in different places or at different times. Up to the nineteenth century, a single hound or a brace was used on deer-parks, to find deer for the gun. However, mid century two packs appeared, that of Thomas Neville, who hunted in the New Forest area, and who preferred very black hounds, and that of Lord Wolverton. Both these hunted semi-domesticated deer (‘carted deer’), which were recaptured on being brought to bay, and returned home. It was said of Lord Wolverton’s hounds that he found it difficult to get them to hunt as a pack, because each liked to follow the scent on his own. Eventually, many were sold to Le Couteulx de Canteleu and taken to France. At the turn of the century several packs existed briefly, following either deer, or the ‘clean boot’ – individual human scent without any enhancement such as animal blood or aniseed. Since the second world war there have been several packs, perhaps most notably that of Eric Furness, who introduced a cross to a Dumfriesshire foxhound into his Peak Bloodhounds. Generally, masters of bloodhounds since then maintain a level of outcross breeding in their packs to improve speed and agility, while retaining bloodhound type. These packs hunt the clean boot and are followed by a field on horseback.
Health & Maintenance
Compared to other purebred dogs, Bloodhounds suffer an unusually high rate of gastrointestinal ailments, with bloat being the most common type of gastrointestinal problem. The breed also suffers an unusually high incidence of eye, skin, and ear ailments; thus these areas should be inspected frequently for signs of developing problems. Owners should be especially aware of the signs of bloat, which is both the most common illness and the leading cause of death of Bloodhounds. To minimize bloat the owner should feed a Bloodhound at least an hour before or after exercise and place food and water in a raised feeder. The thick coat gives the breed the tendency to overheat quickly.
Lifespan and Mortality
Bloodhounds in a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey had a median longevity of 6.75 years, which makes them one of the shortest-lived of dog breeds. The oldest of the 82 deceased dogs in the survey died at the age of 12.1 years. Bloat took 34% of the animals, making it the most common cause of death in Bloodhounds. The second leading cause of death in the study was cancer, at 27%; this percentage is similar to other breeds, but the median age of death was unusually young (median of about 8 years).
In Movies, TV, & Print
- Pluto, pet of Mickey Mouse, officially a mixed-breed dog, but designed after a pair of bloodhounds from The Chain Gang (1930)
- Ol’ Red, from the George Jones (later remade by Blake Shelton) song of the same name.
- Ladybird from King of the Hill
- Copper from the film and novel The Fox and the Hound
- Beaureguard in Pogo
- Pedro, the Bloodhound owned and used by the English detective, Sexton Blake.
- Henry, a Bloodhound used in a popular series of British TV dog food commercials, with Clement Freud.
- Trusty in “Lady and the Tramp” and “Lady and the Tramp 2”
- Snuffles in Quick Draw McGraw
- Napoleon from The Aristocats
- Duke, Jed’s Bloodhound from the Beverly Hillbillies
- Hubert from Best in Show
- Bobby Lee and others from Virginia Lanier’s Bloodhound series
- Buddy, in Cats & Dogs
- Bruno in Cinderella (1950 film)
- The Bumpuses’ hounds in A Christmas Story and My Summer Story
- Woofer and Whimper in Clue Club
- McGruff the Crime Dog
- Jasper T. Jowls at Chuck E. Cheese’s
- 2nd book in the Provost’s Dog trilogy or Beka Cooper series by Tamora Pierce
- General Pepper from Star Fox (series)
- Everett from Back at the Barnyard
- Bear & Bryant in Sweet Home Alabama
- Pommes Frites, faithful and remarkable companion of Michael Bond’s culinary detective, Monsieur Pamplemousse
- Old Towser in “One Hundred and One Dalmatians”
- Waylon and Floyd in The Fox and the Hound 2″
- Sniffer in Air Buddies and Santa Buddies
- Laughing Dog from Duck Hunt
- Bayard Hamar from Alice in Wonderland (2010 film)
- B.H. (Calcutta) Failed : a Bloodhound which had lost its sense of smell, in The Perishers, cartoon strip published in The Daily Mirror.
- Frank in The Dog Who Thought He Was Santa by Bill Wallace.
- Clyde from Johnny & Clyde -1995 Hallmark film (See trailer on Photos/Video tab)
In Pop Culture
- A bloodhound appears when Big Daddy goes outside while changing the porch light in the 1958 classic film, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.
- The bloodhound is seen in the 2009 film, Hotel for Dogs.
- A pack of bloodhounds track down Paul Newman’s character in Cool Hand Luke.
- A bloodhound is seen while Lennie and Eli are tracking down the title character in the 1991 film, Bingo.
- A bloodhound is seen as part of the dog pack in Secondhand Lions.
- The bloodhound is seen in The Borrowers (1997 film).
- Lightning the bloodhound is seen in Racing Stripes, voiced by Snoop Dogg.
- A pack of bloodhounds search for Tim Robbins character, Andy Dufresne, after he escapes prison in The Shawshank Redemption.
- Doug Heffernan briefly adopts a bloodhound in the King of Queens episode Ruff Goin’.
- Hubert is the name of Harlan Pepper’s (Christopher Guest) bloodhound in the cult comedy Best in Show (2000 film)
- In the animated show King of the Hill, Hank Hill’s beloved dog Ladybird is a bloodhound
- The abilities of bloodhounds were put to the test in two episodes of Mythbusters.
- The bloodhound face is used as a logo for the main antagonist “Elite Hunting Club” in Hostel (2005 film), Hostel: Part II, and Hostel: Part III respectively.
- “Mcgruff” The Crime Dog was a notable animated bloodhound.
- http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/item/570 Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee. 2004. Purebred Dog Health Survey.
- http://users.pullman.com/lostriver/weight_and_lifespan.htm Dog Longevity Web Site, Weight and Longevity page. Compiled by K. M. Cassidy
- Charles IX (1625) (in French). La Chasse Royale (Chs vii,viii). – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_IX_of_France
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- Buchanan-Jardine Bt MFH MBH, Sir John (1937). Hounds of the World.
- Brough, Edwin (1902). The Bloodhound and its use in Tracking Criminals.
- Lowe, Brian (1981). Hunting the Clean Boot. ISBN 0-7137-0950-2.
- Brey, CF; Reed, LF (1978). The Complete Bloodhound. ISBN 0-87605-052-6.
- Anonymous (c1350). William of Palerne or William and the Werwolf (line 2183) – http://www.archive.org/details/romanceofwilliam00guiluoft
- Anonymous (c1350). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (line 1436) – http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=50&fk_files=1496273
- Forests and Chases of England and Wales: A Glossary. St John’s College, Oxford – http://info.sjc.ox.ac.uk/forests/glossary.htm
- Turbervile, George (1575). The Noble Art of Venerie or Huntyng . – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Turbervile
- Barbour, John (1375). The Bruce. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Barbour_(poet)
- Henry the Minstrel (Blind Harry) (1470). The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Actes_and_Deidis_of_the_Illustre_and_Vallyeant_Campioun_Schir_William_Wallace
- Caius, John (1576). Fleming, Abraham. ed. Of Englisshe Dogges . – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Caius
- Boece (Boethius), Hector (1536). Bellenden, John. ed. The History and Croniklis of Scotland. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector_Boece
- Ash, Edward C (1927). Dogs, their History and Development (2vols).
- Boyle, Robert (1673, pub 1772). Birch, T. ed. On the Strange Subtilty of Effluviums/Of the Determinate Nature of Effluviums. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Boyle
- Kennel Club Breed Record Supplements
- The Bloodhound, the St Hubert and the FCI, in Barwick M: Aspects of Bloodhound History – http://bloodhounds.org.uk/History/MB-AspectsUS.pdf
- Master of the Hounds Article on Christiane Barnard, American Bloodhound Club Bulletin summer 1989
- Whitney, Leon F (1947). Bloodhounds and How to Train Them.
- Tolhurst, William D (1984). Manhunters! Hounds of the big T as told to Lena F Reed.
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- Anonymous (c1400) Alliterative Morte Arthure (line 3640). – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alliterative_Morte_Arthure
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- Piper, Dennis (1969)Colour Inheritance in the Bloodhound Available from The Bloodhound Club, UK
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- “Underdogs ~ The Bloodhound’s Amazing Sense of Smell | Nature”. PBS. – http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/underdogs/the-bloodhounds-amazing-sense-of-smell/350/
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- The Shawshank Redemption – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Shawshank_Redemption
- ©Hound Dogs dRule – http://hounddogsdrule.com
- Bruce (Flickr) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
- Flickr user SuperFantastic (Flickr here) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
- Pleple2000 (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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- W. E. Mason – Dogs of all Nations [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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Animal Planet TV – Dogs 101: Bloodhound
Animal Planet TV – Breed All About It: Bloodhound
Trailer for Johnny & Clyde (Hallmark movie)
Eukanuba: 2011 Bloodhound Breed
FCI Standard No. 84 – 07-12-2002 – GB
TRANSLATION: Mrs. Jeans-Brown, revised by Mr. R. Pollet and R. Triquet.
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD: 3-13-2001.
Scent hound for large game venery, service dog, tracking dog and family dog. It was and it must always remain a hound which due to its remarkable sense of smell is foremost a leash hound, often used not only to follow the trail of wounded game as in the blood scenting trials but also to seek out missing people in police operations. Due to its functional construction, the Bloodhound is endowed with great endurance and also an exceptional nose which allows it to follow a trail over a long distance and difficult terrain without problems.
- Group 6 Scent hound and related breeds.
- Section 1 Scent hounds.
- 1.1 Large sized hounds.
With working trial.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
Large scent hound and excellent leash hound, with very ancient antecedents. For centuries it
has been known and appreciated for its exceptional nose and its great talent for the hunt. It was bred in the Ardennes by the monks of the Abbaye de Saint-Hubert. It is presumed to descend from black or black and tan hounds hunting in packs which were used in the 7th century by the monk Hubert, who was later made a bishop and who when canonized became the patron saint of hunters. These big scent hounds spread throughout the Ardennes, due to the presence of large game, sheltering in the widespread forests of the region. These Saint- Hubert hounds were famed for their robustness and their endurance, especially when hunting wild boar.
The first Saint-Hubert hounds were black but later black and tan was also to be found. In the 11th century these dogs were imported into England by William the Conqueror. At the same time, dogs of the same type but with an all-white coat, called Talbots, were also introduced there.
In England the imported dogs provided the basic root stock. The progeny of these Bloodhounds received their name as a derivation of ” blooded hound ” which means a dog of pure blood, therefore a pure-bred.
Subsequently the breed was also developed in the United States of America. In the Southern States especially, these dogs were used for hunting runaway slaves.
Large-sized hound and massive leash hound, the most powerful of all the scent hounds. It is harmonious in its lines, endowed with strong bone, good muscle and a lot of substance, but without ever appearing heavy. It is long in structure, fitting into a rectangle. The overall appearance is imposing and full of nobility. Its attitude is solemn. The head and neck attract attention because of their abundant, supple and thin skin, hanging in deep folds. Its movement is impressive, rather slow and with a certain rolling gait but lithe, elastic and free. No characteristic should be so exaggerated as to destroy the harmony of the whole, to give an over-done appearance or even less to harm the health or well-being of the dog.
Among possible exaggerations should be mentioned eyes which are too deep set or too small; distended eyelids; too much and too loose skin with too many and too deep folds; too much dewlap; too narrow a head. Dogs which are too big, with bodies too heavy or too massive, are equally undesirable because this impedes their function.
- Length of body / height at withers : 10 / 9.
- Depth of chest / height at withers : 1 / 2.
- Length of head / length of body : 3 / 7.
- Length of muzzle / length of head : 1/2 .
Gentle, placid, kind and sociable with people. Particularly attached to its owner. Tolerant of kennel companions and other domestic animals. Somewhat reserved and stubborn. Just as sensitive to compliments as to corrections. Never aggressive. Its voice is deep but it rarely barks.
The most characteristic point of the breed is the imposing and majestic head, full of nobility. It is deep but narrow in relation to its length and long in relation to the length of the body. The bone structure is clearly visible. The lateral sides are flattened and the profile is square. The topline of the muzzle is near1y on the same plane as the upper outline of the skull. On the forehead and cheeks, the abundant thin skin forms wrinkles and deep folds, falling when the head is carried low and continuing into the strongly developed folds of the dewlap. The skin is less abundant in the female.
The skull is deep, long, rather narrow with flattened sides. The brows are not prominent although they may appear so. The occipital peak is very developed and distinctly pronounced.
Stop : Only slightly marked.
Nose: Black or brown, always black on black and tan dogs. The nose is broad, well-developed, with wide open nostrils.
Muzzle : As long as the skull, deep, broad near the nostrils and of equal width throughout its length. The top-line of the muzzle is muzzle is either straight or slightly convex ( slight ram’s nose ).
Lips : Very long and limp ; the upper lips fall over the lower lips and at the front form a right angle with the upper line of the fore-face, which gives a square profile to the muzzle. Towards the corners of the mouth they become fleshy flews ( less pronounced in the female ) which blend imperceptibly into the abundant dewlap. The edge of the upper lips comes down about 5 cm below the lower jaw. The edge of the lips is well-pigmented, black or brown, depending on the nose color.
Jaws/Teeth : Complete dentition, in correct scissor bite; strong white teeth, set regularly in well-developed jaws. A pincer bite is tolerated.
Cheeks : Hollowed and lean, especially under the eyes.
Eyes : Dark brown or hazel, of a lighter hue ( amber ) in dogs without black saddle or mantle. Eyes of moderate size, oval, not weeping, neither protruding nor sunk into the socket, leaving the iris totally visible. Lids with no irregularity in their contour, normally fitting around the eye-ball ; lower lids a little slack so that a little haw is visible are nevertheless tolerated. At no time should the eye-lashes touch or interfere with the eyes. The expression is gentle, kind and dignified, with a rather melancholy air.
Ears: Thin and supple, covered in short hair, delicate and velvety to the touch ; very long lobes, reaching at least beyond the end of the nose when they are laid on the upper line of the fore-face; ears set very low, level with the eyes or even lower, on the side of the head, falling in graceful folds curling inwards and backwards (curling ears).
Long so that the dog can follow the trail with its nose on the ground ; strongly muscled ; the skin of the throat is loose and extremely developed, presenting a double dewlap, but this is less pronounced in the female.
The top-line and underline are almost parallel.
Withers : Slightly pronounced.
Back : Straight, broad, long and solid.
Loins : Broad, strong, short, very slightly arched.
Croup : Well-muscled, almost horizontal, never falling away, very broad and quite long.
Chest : Oval in shape, broad, well let down, clearly forming a keel between the forelegs; thoracic cage long enough ; forechest and point of shoulder standing out, ribs well-sprung, neither flat nor barrel.
Underline and belly : Underline almost horizontal ; underside of chest well let down ; flanks well filled, broad and let down ; belly only very slightly tucked up.
Long, strong, thick, set high, in continuation of the dorsal line ,tapering gradually towards the tip; carried sabre fashion ; on the move the tail curves gracefully above the line of the back, never curled or twisting sideways .The underside of the tail is furnished with harsher hair, about 5 cm long, which becomes progressively shorter towards the tip.
Overview: Well-muscled, powerful forequarters, straight and perfectly parallel.
Shoulder : Long, well-sloping, well-muscled but not over-loaded.
Upper arm : Long, sloping and forming good angulation with the shoulder.
Elbow : Well set, neither turning out nor in.
Forearm : Straight, strong round bone.
Wrist : Firm.
Metacarpus (Pastern) : Sturdy , upright seen from the front, slightly forward sloping seen from the side.
Forefoot : Compact, very solid, neither toeing in nor out ; toes well-arched, well knuckled up and tight (cat feet) ; thick solid pads ; short strong nails.
Overview: Solid, powerfully muscled, well-balanced with the forequarters; seen from behind perfectly parallel, neither close nor open.
Upper thigh : Good length and strongly muscled.
Stifle (Knee) : Well-angulated, neither turning in nor out.
Lower thigh : Sufficiently long and strongly muscled.
Hock : Solid , close to the ground and well-angulated.
Metatarsus (Rear Pastern) : Strong and short.
Hind foot : Like front foot.
GAIT / MOVEMENT:
The assessment of the very typical movement of the Bloodhound is extremely important. At its normal gait, the trot , the movement is even, with measured steps, springy and free, covering more ground than any other scent hound and very characteristic of the breed, rolling but without crabbing. The hind legs move well at the back , there is good drive from the hindquarters, the reach of the fore and hindquarter movements is equal and the topline remains horizontal. The limbs move parallel but at greater speed the feet single-track. The tail is carried high like a sabre without the curve becoming too pronounced. The Bloodhound must be capable of maintaining a trot for a long period of time without showing signs of tiredness.
Supple over all the body , loose and elastic. The thin skin, very loose and abundant over the head, is very characteristic. On the forehead and the lateral sides of the fore-face, the skin forms folds which hang down and which are even more noticeable when the head is carried low .However over-done wrinkles and folds on the forehead and brows must never harm the eyes. Folds of skin on the body due to too much skin are not desirable.
On the body , the close-lying hair is short, dense, quite harsh and weatherproof. On the head and ears the hair is very short and soft to the touch. The underside of the tail is furnished with hair a little longer and coarser.
There are three distinct coat colors : the bicolors black and tan and liver and tan and the unicolor red.
Among black and tan dogs the amount of black varies, according to whether it is a mantle or a saddle. In a dog with a mantle, black is predominant : the tan ( fawn ) is only found on the muzzle, the cheeks, above the eyes , on the fore-chest, on the limbs and the anal region. A dog with a saddle has a greater expanse of tan because the black is more or less limited to the dorsal region.
The same positioning of colorized zones is to be found in the bicolored liver and tan. The colors are not always clearly stated nor distinctly defined. In the darker areas, it is possible to find them interspersed with lighter or badger hairs. Such a mixture of different colored hairs is allowed.
For the unicolored red, the red can vary from light red to dark red.
A washed-out tan for bicolours or red for unicolours is not sought after .
A little white on the forechest, on the toes and at the tip of the tail is tolerated without being sought after.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Height at withers : The ideal height is 26-3/4 inches (68 cm) for males; 24-1/2 inches (62 cm) for females. Tolerance of 1-1/2 inches (4 cm) more or less.
Weight : Males about 101 – 119 lbs (46 – 54 kg); Females about 88 – 106 lbs (40 – 48 kg).
Height and weight must be balanced.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
- General appearance : Cloddy; lacking in substance; light bone; too high or too low on leg, square construction rather than rectangular ; lack of nobility.
- Head : Skull broad and voluminous or excessively narrow ; receding forehead ; skin on forehead falling too far forward; occipital peak not sufficiently pronounced; too marked a stop; bridge of nose concave; muzzle short or not deep enough; top lips not pendulous enough.
- Nose and lips : Loss of pigment.
- Dentition : Teeth missing.
- Eyes : Too small, too sunken in sockets ; lower lid too pendulous, too much haw visible.
- Ears : Too short, too thick, set above the eyeline, too close to the head, too flat.
- Neck : Short, slender, very little dewlap.
- Body : Short or too long; chest not well let down, forechest not protruding enough in profile; slab-sided or barrel-chested ; weak or arched back, croup overbuilt or falling away; belly too tucked up.
- Tail : Low set; squirrel tail, ring tail, curled tail; knotty or kinked tail; hook or deviated tail.
- Limbs : Under or over angulated ; short upper arm ; not upright seen in profile ( front pasterns too sloping or wrists weak ), nor from the front ( feet turning out or in, forearm curved, elbows out etc. ) or from behind ( hind legs too close together, wide apart or barreled ; hocks closed or open etc); spreading, hare or flat feet.
- Gait / Movement : Close movement or open; weaving, crabbing, restricted or stilted gait ; mincing gait; poor transmission by the back.
- Coat color : Light or washed-out colors.
- Temperament : Lacking in confidence or shy.
- Temperament : Aggressive or overly shy. Any dog showing signs of physical anomaly should be eliminated.
- General appearance : Lack of breed type.
- Dentition : Over or under shot; wry jaw; crooked mouth.
- Nose and lips : Very lacking in pigment or pink ; anything other than black in black and tan dogs; anything other than brown or black in dogs without black saddle or mantle.
- Eyes : Light yellow ( hawk eyes ).
- Coat color : Any colors which do not correspond to those described ; too widespread white markings, such as white going up as far as wrists or hocks, or too much white on the fore-chest; white patches anywhere other than the fore-chest, toes and tip of tail, like a white muzzle or a white blaze etc.
- Size : Outside the tolerated limits.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioral abnormalities shall be disqualified.
N.B. Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
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