Transylvanian Hound – General Description
The Hungarian Hound (aka. Erdélyi Kopó, Transylvanian Bloodhound) is a breed of dog originating in Transylvania. It was originally kept by Hungarian kings and princes for hunting various game (i.e. foxes, boar, etc).
Classification and Standards
- FCI Group 6, Section 1, #241
- UKC Scenthound Group
Character & Temperament
The breed is extremely loyal and friendly. They are very good natured and well mannered with both people and other dogs. They form strong attachments to their owners and are very protective of family members. It is very protective of its immediate territory (i.e. owners’ house and yard), and will appear very ferocious with an intimidating bark and growl towards strangers; however, it will immediately accept anyone who is invited into the area by its owners. They enjoy constant companionship and tend to remain in the presence of their owners. They have an excellent sense of direction.
The Transylvanian Hound is an extremely intelligent breed, and is easily trained. They are good at problem solving.
The Transylvanian Hound came with the invading Magyar tribes in the ninth century, who brought in hounds and crossed them with local breeds and Polish hounds.
He was used in hunting wolf and bear The breed was kept by Hungarian kings and princes for hunting various game (i.e. foxes, boar, etc.). In the beginning of the twentieth century, the breed was nearly extinct and in 1968 new efforts began to save it. The only area outside of Hungary where it exists is in Romania.
The breed was developed in the Carpathian Mountains, an area rich in forests, meadows, and rivers. Thus it can be used to hunt over any type of terrain, even during frozen winters, or sultry summers. The two varieties are used for different specialized purposes. The long-legged variety is for hunting boar, stag, and lynx, while the short-legged variety is for hunting smaller burrowing animals, especially fox and hare.
Size & Appearance
The breed is of medium size weighing 66-77 pounds. The limbs of this breed are well-constructed, always ready to spring. It has a short but not pointed head, with a straight nose and strong well-developed teeth. The eyes are oblique and dark brown in color. The ears are hanging, and without folds. The tail is hanging when it is at rest, and it becomes twisted on its back during the hunt. The breed has unwrinkled skin. Its coat is short, strong, and close to the body.
There are two varieties of the Transylvanian hound, which determine the height and colour:
- long-legged variety: height is 22-26 inches; colours are black with white markings on its forehead, chest, feet, and the point of the tail (specialized in wild boar, deer, and lynx).
- short-legged variety: height is 18-20 inches; the base colour is red-brown with white markings(used on fox and hare).
Health & Maintenance
No unusual health problems or claims of extraordinary health have been documented for the Taiwan Dog.
- “FCI Standard N° 241 / 13.09.2000 / GB”. Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Dogsunit.
- “Transylvanian Hound”. The Furry Critter Network.
- Official Hungarian Hound site (Hungarian)
- Hungarian Transylvanian Bloodhound
- Copoi ardelenesc (Transylvanian Scenthound) Portal (Romanian) (registration required)
- sajat keszites (sajat gep) [CC0 (creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
- Lnko2323 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
- Stbichler [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], from Wikimedia Commons
Transylvanian Hound (Erdélyi Kopó)
FCI Standard N° 241 / 13.09.2000 / GB
TRANSLATION: Mrs C. Seidler and Mrs Elke Peper.
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD: 06.04.2000.
Hunting Dog (Hound) which is able to hunt independently, also at a great distance from his handler. Excellently suited to the finding and pursuit of a trail. When he finds a fresh scent, he yaps with a whining sound; during the hunt giving tongue to the scent, his barking is resounding, high pitched and ringing. He drives and points game in an excellent manner. He works smoothly alone or being part of a brace.
F.C.I. CLASSIFICATION :
- Group 6 Scent Hounds and Related Breeds.
- Section 1.2. Medium sized Hounds.
With working trial.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
The Erdelyi Kopó is an ancient Hungarian breed, which has been determined by the peculiarities of the climate, the territory and the hunting conditions. The breed reached its climax in the Middle Ages, at a time when it was the favorite hunting dog of the aristocracy. Regarding its original use, it was pushed back into the path-less woods of the Carpathian mountains, due to the developments in agriculture and forestry. As a result of the influence of the various conditions of the terrain, two varieties of the Erdelyi Kopó evolved: the long legged and the short legged variety. These two varieties were always kept together.
Originally the long legged Hungarian Hound was used for hunting big game like buffaloes and later bears, wild boars and lynxes, while the short legged Hound was used for hunting small game like foxes or hares in overgrown terrain and chamois in rocky areas. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Hungarian Hound was nearly extinct. The determined breeding was resumed in 1968. Nowadays a significant number of dogs of the long legged variety exists in Hungary and in the neighboring Romania; the short legged variety disappeared.
The shape and the carriage of the head, the body proportions, the strong muscular limbs and the tail set of the Hungarian Hound correspond to the characteristics of the Mid-European type of Hounds. It is medium sized. The body formation of the Hungarian Hound has adapted to the work over long distances. He is athletically built, neither coarse nor fine boned.
- The ratio of the length of the skull to the length of the muzzle is approximately 1:1.
- The ratio of the height at the withers to the length of the body is 10:11.
BEHAVIOR / TEMPERAMENT:
Good-natured, courageous, enduring. The basic character of the Hungarian Hound is quiet, even, but also determined and lively. He even stands extreme weather conditions.
It is a longish but not pointed Hound head; the difference between the sexes is distinct.
The skin on the head is close-fitting and free of wrinkles.
Skull: Slightly domed. The occiput is not pronounced. The superciliary ridges are slightly developed.
Stop: Barely pronounced.
Nose: The nose is not too bluntly cut off, the color is black. The nostrils are mobile and wide.
Muzzle: Bridge of nose straight.
Lips: Dry and tight fitting. The color of the mucous membrane is black.
Jaws/Teeth: The jaws are strong. The teeth are strong and well developed. Complete scissor bite, according to the dentition formula.
Cheeks: Rounded, only slightly developed.
Eyes: Of medium size, almond shaped, slightly oblique. The color is dark brown. The lids are close-fitting to the eyeball.
Ears: Set medium high, not too heavy, hanging closely to the cheeks without being folded. They widen from the base and then taper towards the rounded tip. Pulled forwards, the leathers cover the eyes but normally do not reach further.
Very muscular, of medium length. The skin forms slight folds on the throat. A slight dewlap is permitted but not desirable.
The body has the shape of a prone rectangle.
Back: Straight behind the withers with well developed muscles.
Loin: In bitches a slightly longer loin is permitted.
Croup: Slightly sloping.
Chest: The sternum does not protrude. The brisket is broad, long and not too deep. In cross section, it is oval, nearly rounded, to ensure easy breathing.
Underline and belly: Belly only slightly tucked up.
Set on at medium height, strong. In repose, the lower third of the tail is curved slightly upwards. It reaches, preferably, one to two cm beyond the hocks. When excited, the dog carries his tail curved, yet not curled, over the back. The tail is not docked.
Seen from the front, the front legs are parallel and, as a result of the broad chest, adequately far apart.
Shoulders: Shoulder blade well muscled, adequately long and moderately sloping.
Elbows: Close-fitting to the ribcage.
Forearm: Straight and symmetric.
Forefeet: Large with well knit, strong, arched toes. The pads are large, firm and well cushioned. Nails strong and as black as possible.
When standing, the hind legs are slightly overstretched beyond the rear; well muscled.
Upper thigh: Long.
Hocks: Low set.
Metatarsus: Straight and parallel.
Hind feet: Toes well knit and strong. Pads large, firm and well cushioned. Nails strong and as black as possible. Dewclaws should be removed.
The stride is long and ground covering, never mincing. The trot is ground covering. When at work, his gallop is extremely enduring.
The skin of the Hungarian Hound is medium thick. Especially in the throat region it is a little loose but never folded. It has a dark pigment. Bare areas of skin are black.
The whole body, even the underside of the belly, is covered by short, straight, dense, flat coat. On the neck, the withers, the back of the upper thighs and the underside of the tail, the coat is longer than on the other parts of the body. Cow-licks and ridges may occur. The coat is coarse to the touch and shiny. Undercoat under the topcoat.
The primary color of the Hungarian Hound is black. There is always a not too dark tan point on each eyebrow.
Tan markings on muzzle and legs. The tan is distinctly demarcated from the black. On the nose, a white marking may occur, possibly extending to a blaze on the forehead, to a collar around the neck, to the chest, under the chest and to the lower parts of the legs and the feet. A white marking may also occur on the tip of the tail. White on more than one fifth of the whole body is undesirable.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
SIZE: Ideal height at withers: 55 to 65 cm
The decisive criterion is the overall balance rather than the mere measure in cm.
WEIGHT: Minimum 25 kg.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
- Aggressive or overly shy.
- Cranial or facial region too narrow, too long or rounded.
- Stop very slight or too pronounced.
- Short muzzle.
- Faulty bite.
- Light ears, Terrier or Sighthound like ears.
- Wiry coat, soft, wavy or sparse coat.
- Brown or blue color with markings.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioral abnormalities shall be disqualified.
N.B.: Male animals must have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
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